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Article Title

Determination of codeine, morphine and 6-acetylmorphine in urine

Abstract

A simple yet effective GC/MS protocol was developed and evaluated for the determination of free codeine, free morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, total codeine and total morphine in urine. Optimal recovery was achieved with extraction conducted at pH 9.0. Trimethylsilyl-derivatives of these analytes and the internal standard (nalorphine) were found adequately stable for a 72-hour period. Quantitative determination of the analytes was performed by selective ion monitoring. Excellent linearity was observed over the 50-1000 ng/mL concentration range studied. The intraday and interday precisions range from 0.47 to 7.72% for codeine, 0.31 to 8.09% for morphine and 0.49 to 6.15% for 6-acetylmorphine. The overall recoveries for codeine, morphine and 6-acetylmorphine were found to be 98.3%, 76.7% and 85.6% respectively.

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