Liver fibrosis occurs due to injury or inflammation, which results in the excessive production of collagen and the formation of fibrotic scar tissue that impairs liver function. Despite the limited treatment options available, freshwater clams may hold promise in the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of ethanol extract of freshwater clam (FCE), ethyl acetate extract of FCE (EA-FCE), and trans-2-nonadecyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolane (TNHD) on liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Administration of FCE and TNHD alleviated liver injury, including tissue damage, necrosis, inflammation scores, fibrosis scores, serum enzymes, and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of fibrosis-related proteins, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β), as well as the hydroxyproline content, which decreased after treatment with FCE and TNHD. Animal experiments revealed that FCE and TNHD can reduce liver fibrosis by inhibiting cytokines that activate stellate cells and decreasing extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. Cell experiments have shown that TNHD inhibits the MAPK/Smad signaling pathway and TGF-β1 activation, resulting in a reduction in the expression of fibrosis-related proteins. Therefore, freshwater clam extracts, particularly TNHD, may have potential therapeutic and preventive effects for the amelioration of liver fibrosis.

Abstract Image

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.