While the gut microbiota is known to be influenced by habitual food intake, this relationship is seldom explored in type 2 diabetes patients. This study aims to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and gut microbial species abundance in 113 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age, 58 years; body mass index, 29.1; glycohemoglobin [HbA1c], 8.1%). We analyzed the gut microbiota using 16S amplicon sequencing, and all patients were catogorized into either the Bacteroides enterotype (57.5%, n = 65) or the Prevotella enterotype (42.5%, n = 48) using the partitioning around medoids clustering algorithm, based on the most representative genera. Patients with the Bacteroides enterotype showed better glycemic control with a 2.71 odds of HbA1c ≤ 7.0 compared to the Prevotella enterotype (95% confidence interval, 1.02–7.87; P, 0.034). Dietary habits and the nutrient composition of all patients were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. It was observed that the amounts of dietary fiber consumed were suboptimal, with an average intake of 16 grams per day. Additionally, we extracted four dietary patterns through factor analysis: eating-out, high-sugar foods, fish–vegetable, and fermented foods patterns. Patients with the Bacteroides enterotype had higher scores for the fish–vegetable pattern compared to the Prevotella enterotype (0.17 ± 0.13 versus -0.23 ± 0.09; P, 0.010). We further investigated the relationship between the microbiota and the four dietary patterns and found that only the fish–vegetable dietary pattern scores were correlated with principal coordinate values. A lower pattern score was associated with the accumulated abundance of the 31 significant microbial features. Among these features, Prevotella copri was identified as the most significant by using a random forest model, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.88–0.98). To validate these results, we conducted a custom quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. This assay confirmed the presence of Prevotella copri (sensitivity, 0.96; specificity, 0.97) in our cohort, with a prevalence of 47.8%, and a mean relative abundance of 21.0% in subjects harboring Prevotella copri. In summary, type 2 diabetes patients with the Prevotella enterotype demonstrated poorer glycemic control and deviations from a healthy dietary pattern. The abundance of Prevotella copri, as a major contributing microbial feature, was associated with the severity in the deficiency in dietary fish and vegetables. Emphasis should be placed on promoting a healthy dietary pattern and understanding the microbial correlations

Abstract Image

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.