Herbal interactions with nifedipine/felodipine through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibition is significant in humans. Shengmai-San (SMS), a three-herbal formula of Chinese medicine, is commonly prescribed in Asia populations for cardiovascular disorders. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of SMS on nifedipine/felodipine treatment by the findings from rat pharmacokinetic study of nifedipine to the retrospective cohort study of patients with hypertension. The 3-week SMS treatment increased the systemic exposure to nifedipine by nearly two-fold and decreased nifedipine clearance by 39% in rats. Among the ingredients of SMS component herbs, schisandrin B, schisantherin A, and methylophiopogonanone A, inhibited the nifedipine oxidation (NFO) activities of rat hepatic and intestinal microsomes, as well as human CYP3A4. Methylophiopogonanone A was identified as a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4. After 1:5 propensity score matching, 4,894 patients with nifedipine/felodipine use were analyzed. In patients receiving nifedipine/felodipine, the subgroup with concurrent SMS treatment had a higher incidence of headache (92.70 per 1,000 person-years) than the subgroup without SMS treatment (51.10 per 1,000 person-years). There was a positive association between headache incidence and cumulative doses of SMS (1–60 g SMS: hazard ratio (HR): 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.74; > 60 g SMS: HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.62–2.39; p < 0.0001). However, patients who had higher cumulative SMS doses had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (1–60 g SMS: HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.94; > 60 g SMS: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37–0.79; p =0.001). Results demonstrated increased rat plasma nifedipine levels after 3-week SMS treatment and increased headache incidence should be noted in nifedipine/felodipine-treated patients with prolonged SMS administration.

Abstract Image

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.