Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a non-natural sulfated glycosaminoglycan, recognizes as a significant containment in the pharmaceutical heparin, and it could trigger adverse reactions. Chromatography-, electrophoresis-, electrochemistry-, and spectroscopy-related techniques are currently available for accurate and precise analysis of a trace amount of OSCS in heparin. Recently, emerging studies focus on developing colorimetric and fluorescent probes to monitor OSCS containments in heparin. Therefore, this current review aims to describe the sensing principle and procedure of the reported probes that are sensitive and selective toward OSCS in heparin without the interferences of other sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The reported OSCS-specific probes are comprehensively discussed according to the recognition elements of OSCS, including coralyne, AG73 peptides, positively charged tetraphenylethene derivatives, polythiophene polymer, and poly-L-lysine, protamine, superpositively charged green fluorescent proteins, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The sensing of OSCS in heparin is generally achieved using, (i) the specific affinity of the recognition element with OSCS and heparin, (ii) heparinase-mediated hydrolysis of heparin, and (iii) OSCS-induced inhibition of heparinase activity. Additionally, coralyne-based DNA probes can detect OSCS in heparin in the presence of Ca2+ ions without the assistance of heparinase. This review will pave the way to design another sensing probe towards other sulfated contaminants, like dermatan sulfate. Keywords: Colorimetric, fluorescence, heparin, over sulfated chondroitin sulfate, sensor

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.