Glucose is an important energy source for cells. Glucose transport is mediated by two types of glucose transporters: the active sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), and the passive glucose transporters (GLUTs). Development of an easy way to detect glucose uptake by the cell can be valuable for research. 1-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-1-deoxy-D-glucose (1-NBDG) is a newly synthesized fluorescent glucose analogue. Unlike 2-NBDG, which is a good substrate of GLUTs but not SGLTs, 1-NBDG can be transported by both GLUTs and SGLTs. Thus, 1-NBDG is useful for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors. Here we further characterized 1-NBDG and compared it with 2- NBDG. The fluorescence of both 1-NBDG and 2-NBDG was quenched under alkaline conditions, but only 1-NBDG fluorescence could be restored upon neutralization. HPLC analysis revealed that 2-NBDG was decomposed leading to loss of fluorescence, whereas 1-NBDG remained intact in a NaOH solution. Thus, after cellular uptake, 1-NBDG fluorescence can be detected on a plate reader simply by cell lysis in a NaOH solution followed by neutralization with an HCl solution. The fluorescence stability of 1-NBDG was stable for up to 5 h once cells were lysed; however, similar to 2- NBDG, intracellular 1-NBDG was not stable and the fluorescence diminished substantially within one hour. 1-NBDG uptake could also be detected at the single cell level and inhibition of 1-NBDG uptake by SGLT inhibitors could be detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, 1-NBDG was successfully used in a high-throughput cell-based method to screen for potential SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors. The SGLT inhibitory activities of 67 flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides purified from plants were evaluated and several selective SGLT1, selective SGLT2, as well as dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors were identified. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that glycosyl residues were crucial since the aglycon showed no SGLT inhibitory activities. In addition, the sugar inter-linkage and their substitution positions to the aglycon affected not only the inhibitory activities but also the selectivity toward SGLT1 and SGLT2.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.