Malachite green (MG), a prohibited but still found antimicrobial in aquafarm and during live fish shipping, is a hot target in food safety screening. Herein, a novel chewing gum based flexible SERS (G-SERS) sensor was proposed for rapid sampling and detection of MG on live fish skin. The whole analysis takesmin, while the limit of detection for MG is 0.73 pg. Different from other reports, MG contaminated live fish was monitored daily with the G-SERS sensor, during which the fish was firstly raised in 0.5 ppm MG solution for one day, followed by freshwater for a week. It was found that the SERS signal of residue MG on fish skin could still be seen even on the sixth day, roughly the sale cycle of live fish in a marketplace. Furthermore, the method was also applied for MG screening on the skin of fish purchased from a supermarket and a local street marketplace. MG was found on some fishes from the latter but not from the former, which was cross-validated by LC-MS, suggesting MG risks still exist in smaller marketplaces. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using the flexible SERS sensor for onsite food safety screening.

Abstract Image

Graphical Abstracts.jpg (98 kB)
Graphic Abstract

supporting information.doc (1385 kB)
Appendix A. Supplementary data

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Publisher Note

Due to printer error, this article was previously made available with incorrect page numbers. The article has been repaginated and the article is now available with the correct page numbers for volume 28, issue 2 231-238.