Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, including long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are the mainstay therapy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease that poses a heavy burden on morbidity and mortality worldwide. Use of LABAs and LAMAs in patients with COPD, however, has been concerned about an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, despite inconsistent findings reported from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. In this review, we detailed the relevant evidence generated from RCTs and observational studies with respect to the risk of cardiovascular disease with use of LABAs and LAMAs in management of COPD, and analyzed the contradictory findings in the literature, as well as recommended future research directions to clear the air regarding the cardiovascular safety of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators. © 2019

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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