The targeted analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey traditionally involves a series of extraction and purification steps prior to quantification with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry. These steps, designed to separate the target analytes from interferences, are generally time-consuming and costly. In addition, traditional cleanup steps are likely to eliminate other compounds whose analysis could prove decisive in current or future assessment of the honey sample. Alternatively, direct injection without complex sample preparation steps has been introduced for the fast analysis of trace compounds in environmental and food matrices. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the targeted analysis of 7 key veterinary drug residues in honey based on direct injection high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight, while simultaneously recording data-independent MS/MS (e.g. All Ions MS/MS data) for future re-examination of the data for other purposes. The new method allowed for the detection of the target residues at levels approximately 20–100 times lower than current regulatory limits, for a total analysis time of about 45 min. The recoveries (103–119%), the linearity (R ≥ 0.996) and the repeatability (RSD ≤ 7%) were satisfactory. The method was then applied to 35 honey samples from the Canadian market. Residues of tylosin A, tylosin B, sulfamethazine and sulfadimethoxine were detected in 6, 9, 6 and 23% of the samples respectively, at levels below the regulatory limits in Canada. The possibility of adding a hydrolysis step to study sulfonamides in honey was tested, which provided good results for this family of compounds but lead to degradation of some of the other analytes. Finally, the non-targeted identification of several compounds was demonstrated as a proof of concept of future re-examination of All Ions MS/MS data. This paper illustrates the capacity of this novel method to combine targeted and non-targeted screening of chemical residues in honey. © 2019

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