Prostate, bladder and kidney cancer are the three most common types of genitourinary cancer in the world. Of these, prostate and bladder cancers are within the top 10 most common cancers in men. Notably, kidney cancer causes no obvious symptoms in the early stages. To satisfy clinical-management requirements, researchers have developed numerous biomarkers by applying proteomic approaches using clinical serum, urine and tissue specimens, as well as cell and animal models. Through application of biomarker pipeline protocols, including discovery, verification and validation phases, and mass-spectrometric based proteomic platforms coupled with multiplexed quantification assays, these studies have led to recent rapid progress in this area. With improvements in mass-spectrometric based proteomic techniques, numerous promising biomarker candidates and marker panels for various clinical purposes have been proposed. Verification of novel protein biomarker candidates is very resource demanding (e.g. on the clinical and laboratory sides). With the support of national consortia, it is now possible to investigate the future clinical use of such biomarker strategies and assess their cost-effectiveness in personalized medicine. © 2018

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.