Less-common fruits from Cornus spp. (Cornaceae), also named dogwoods, have shown antidiabetic, antibacterial and anti-allergic properties and are thus considered a source of phytochemicals that are beneficial to human health. The study aimed to compare the chemical compositions of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of lyophilized fresh-picked and commercially available dried fruits of Cornus mas (Cm, cornelian cherry) and Cornus alba (Ca) fruits using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method. Simultaneously, the α-amylase and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities of the prepared extracts were compared by in vitro fluorescence assay based on the kinetic hydrolysis of starch or oleate ester of 4-methylumbelliferone (MUO), respectively. Additionally, a bio-assay guided identification of compounds potentially responsible for the inhibition of pancreatic enzymes was performed. Iridoids (loganic acid, cornuside) and anthocyanins (pelargonidin 3-O-galactoside) were identified in the Cm fruit extracts. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, were detected in the Ca fruit extracts. The chromatographic separation of the constituents of Ca fruit provided a fraction containing phenolic acids derivatives, which inhibited PL activity by 69.9 ± 4.5% at a concentration of 7.5 μg·mL−1. The IC50 of hydroxytyrosol glucoside, isolated from the most active Ca fraction, was 0.99 ± 0.10 mg·mL−1 indicating other constituents responsible for the fraction activity. The most active subfraction from Cm fruit (7.5 μg·mL−1), which inhibited PL activity by 28.3 ± 1.5%, contained pelargonidin 3-O-galactoside. Loganic acid and cornuside in highly pure form did not inhibit lipase activity. The phytochemical constituents of Cm, and particularly of Ca fruit extracts, can inhibit pancreatic enzymes and thus might be considered effective preparations in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia related diseases. © 2018

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