Velvet antler (VA), the unossified antler from members of the family Cervidae, has been used in traditional Chinese medicines and health foods for over 2000 years in enhancement of kidney function and treatment or prevention of cardiovascular, immunological and gynaecological disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of velvet antler water extracts from Formosan sambar deer (Rusa unicolor swinhoei, SVAE) and red deer (Cervus elaphus, RVAE). Results indicated that both SVAE and RVAE significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) productions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations above 200 μg mL−1. SVAE seems to demonstrate a better anti-inflammatory effect than that of RVAE in vitro. Both SVAE and RAVE also enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The results of MTT assay indicated that SVAE and RVAE did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the levels of 6 specific proteins were different between these two velvet antlers samples. Furthermore, the storage period was the major factor affecting the anti-inflammatory activity of SAVE. In this study, we demonstrated the difference of anti-inflammatory effect and the protein profile between SVAE and RVAE. SVAE showed better anti-inflammatory potential than RVAE. In the future, the anti-inflammatory active components and their related mechanisms should be further investigated. © 2018

Abstract Image

ScienceDirect Link


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Fulltext URL