The elderly patients with type 2 diabetes suffer more adverse drug events than young adults due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with aging. Reducing the risks of these medication-related problems are equally important for the clinical care of older type 2 diabetes patients. Pioglitazone is used for treating type 2 diabetes as an oral antidiabetic drug. Despite pioglitazone is used helpful insulin sensitizers, the accumulation of subcutaneous fat is considered a major adverse effect of pioglitazone therapy. We investigated to reduce the adverse effect of pioglitazone by combination with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in aged diabetic KK mice. The accumulation of subcutaneous fat associated with high-dose pioglitazone is reduced by fish oil, suppressing lipogenesis and stimulating fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. Our data suggest that adding fish oil to low-dose pioglitazone results in antidiabetic efficacy similar to that of the high-dose without concomitant body weight gain. © 2018

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