Non-destructive profiling of volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME/GC–MS and its application for the geographical discrimination of white rice
The authenticity determination of white rice is crucial to prevent deceptive origin labeling and dishonest trading. However, a non-destructive and comprehensive method for rapidly discriminating the geographical origins of white rice between countries is still lacking. In the current study, we developed a volatile organic compound based geographical discrimination method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) to discriminate rice samples from Korea and China. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model exhibited a good classification of white rice between Korea and China (accuracy = 0.958, goodness of fit = 0.937, goodness of prediction = 0.831, and permutation test p-value = 0.043). Combining the PLS-DA based feature selection with the differentially expressed features from the unpaired t-test and significance analysis of microarrays, 12 discriminatory biomarkers were found. Among them, hexanal and 1-hexanol have been previously known to be associated with the cultivation environment and storage conditions. Other hydrocarbon biomarkers are novel, and their impact on rice production and storage remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, our findings highlight the ability to rapidly discriminate white rice from Korea and China. The developed method maybe useful for the authenticity and quality control of white rice. © 2017
Lim, D.K.; Mo, C.; Lee, D.-K.; Long, N.P.; Lim, J.; and Kwon, S.W.
"Non-destructive profiling of volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME/GC–MS and its application for the geographical discrimination of white rice,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 26
, Article 12.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2017.04.005
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