The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of drug residues in the raw milk collected from individual farms and milk collection points during 2009–2010 in six different major regions of Kosovo (Prishtinë, Gjilan, Mitrovicë, Pejë, Gjakovë, Prizren). In the present study, a total of 1734 raw milk samples were collected, and qualitatively screened with two different tests, the Delvotest SP assay and an enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay (SNAP). Overall, 106 (6.11%) out of 1734 samples examined with Delvotest SP contained possible drug residues (5.12% and 7.51% of samples from 2009 and 2010, respectively). All suspect samples were further analyzed by three distinct enzyme-linked receptor-binding assays specific for β-lactams (new β-lactam test), tetracyclines (SNAP tetracycline test), and sulfonamides (SNAP sulfamethazine test). Only the new SNAP β-lactam test detected residues in 40 out of 52 samples in 2009 and 54 out of 54 suspect samples in 2010. A confirmatory method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of β-lactam drug residues in samples detected by the enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay. Amoxicillin, penicillin G, and cloxacillin were the most frequently detected residues and were in a concentration range between 2.1 μg/kg and 1973 μg/kg. Seventeen of the positive samples exceeded the maximum residue levels for one or more β-lactam drug. The highest number of positive milk samples came from the Pejë Region (58.8%) and Gjakovë Region (23.5%), and the lowest number of positive samples originated from Gjilan (5.88%), with no positive samples detected in two regions, Mitrovicë and Prizren. © 2016

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