The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol (PA) and hydroalcohol (PHA) extract of Paeonia emodi Royale roots in treatment of streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally) 15 minutes after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration and diabetic nephropathy was assessed by measuring serum glucose, renal parameters (urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen level) and lipid profile. The rats were treated with different doses of extracts (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) for 45 days. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring tissue antioxidant enzymes level along with the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in kidney. PA and PHA (400 mg/kg) produced significant attenuation in the serum glucose level (165.08 ± 3.353 mg/dL and 154.27 ± 2.209 mg/dL, respectively) as compared to control. Elevated renal parameters, lipid levels, tissue antioxidant enzymes and AGE formation were also restored in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that by amelioration of oxidative stress and formation of AGEs, PA and PHA significantly inhibited the progression diabetic nephropathy in rats. © 2016

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