Antioxidant testing of natural products has attracted increasing interest in recent years, mainly due to the fact that an antioxidant-rich diet might provide health benefits. Activated macrophages are a major source of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite generated through the so-called respiratory burst. Constitutively released proinflammatory cytokine, especially tumor necrosis factor-α, triggers nuclear factor-κB, and activator protein-1 translocation leading to the over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in macrophages. Activation of transcription factors in the long-lived tissue-resident macrophages and/or monocyte-derived macrophages, trigger epigenetic modifications leading to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Nutraceuticals including lipid raft structure disruption agent, cholesterol depletion agent, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, nuclear factor-κB blocker (α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds), glucocorticoid receptor agonist, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist have long been used to inactive macrophage. The inhibition effects on the formation of nitric oxide, superoxide, and nitrite peroxide may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory functionalities. Activated macrophage models could be used to identify the active components for functional diets development through a multiple targets strategy. © 2016
Castaneda, O.A.; Lee, S.-C.; Ho, C.-T.; and Huang, T.-C.
"Macrophages in oxidative stress and models to evaluate the antioxidant function of dietary natural compounds,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 25
, Article 13.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.11.006
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