7-N-Acetylcysteine-pyrrole conjugate—A potent DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs) that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-DNA and DHP-protein adducts, and lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. In this study, we determined that the metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human and rat liver microsomes in the presence of N-acetylcysteine both produced 7-N-acetylcysteine-DHP (7-NAC-DHP) and DHP. Reactions of 7-NAC-DHP with 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG), 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA), and calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded DHP-dG and/or DHP-dA adducts. These results indicate that 7-NAC-DHP is a reactive metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation. © 2016
He, X.; Ma, L.; Xia, Q.; and Fu, P.P.
"7-N-Acetylcysteine-pyrrole conjugate—A potent DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 24
, Article 5.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.08.001
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