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Article Title

Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

Abstract

The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs) was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3-10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω), the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss), according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω) at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L). The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L). The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs. © 2015 Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

ScienceDirect Link

10.1016/j.jfda.2014.10.003

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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