Nanotechnology has been applied in consumer products and commercial applications, showing a significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. Significant evidence indicates that manufactured nanomaterials and combustion-derived nanomaterials elicit toxicity in humans exposed to these nanomaterials. The interaction of the engineered nanomaterials with the nervous system has received much attention in the nanotoxicology field. In this review, the biological effects of metal, metal oxide, and carbon-based nanomaterials on the nervous system are discussed from both in vitro and in vivo studies. The translocation of the nanoparticles through the blood-brain barrier or nose to brain via the olfactory bulb route, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mechanisms of nanomaterials are also reviewed. Copyright © 2014, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.