Mechanisms of nanotoxicity: Generation of reactive oxygen species
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21st century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions. This in turn leads to DNA damage, unregulated cell signaling, change in cell motility, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cancer initiation. There are critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS. These critical determinants, discussed briefly here, include: size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium. Copyright © 2014, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.
Fu, P.P.; Xia, Q.; Hwang, H.-M.; Ray, P.C.; and Yu, H.
"Mechanisms of nanotoxicity: Generation of reactive oxygen species,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 22
, Article 2.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.005
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