This study was conducted to investigate how germinated brown rice (GBR) extracts stimulate human mononuclear cell (MNC) growth, secretion of cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and nitric oxide, and subsequently inhibit the growth of U937 cells. The results indicate that through the use of phosphate buffer solution (PGBR), alkali (AGBR) and ethanol (EGBR), the extracts had a significant inhibitory effect on U937 cell growth. Ultimately, the extracts produced an inhibition rate of over 50%. As the concentration was increased up to 1,000 μg/mL, the U937 cell growth inhibition for the three extracts surpassed 60%. The cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ) expression of PGBR-MNC-CMs (conditioned mediums) for 3 days (at 1000 μg/mL) was 1798, 2347 and 1462 pg/mL, respectively. The EGBR showed significant stimulation on the growth of MNC. The results of this study can be used as references for the development of GBR health foods.
Wang, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-W.; Lin, Y.-T.; and Chang, C.-Y.
"Inhibitory effect on human leukemic U937 cell growth and immunomodulatory activity of germinated brown rice,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 20
, Article 15.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.6227/jfda.2012200319