X-ray diffraction patterns of nano-calcium in milk samples obtained from market, to determine their crystal structures and average grain size. The results indicated that after processing, nano-calcium in milk powders not only prompt the transformation of crystal structure, but also partially generate oxide structures or even hydrated structures known as the hetero-phase. The methodology of using X-ray powder diffraction for the structural identification of nano-calcium compounds in milk powders has been successfully established in this study. This methodology can be applied to characterize the compounds and reveal the stability of the nano-scale additives in nano-food technology.

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