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Article Title

Comparison of anti-hyperglycemic activities between low- and high-degree of polymerization procyanidin fractions from cacao liquor extract

Abstract

Procyanidins are thought to be effective for prevention of hyperglycemia. To clarify the degree of polymerization (DP) of procyanidins on anti-hyperglycemic effects, we prepared low-DP (DP ≤ 3) and high-DP (DP ≥ 4) procyanidin fractions from cacao liquor, and examined whether these procyanidin fractions prevent hyperglycemia in vitro. We found that both fractions promoted glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in a dose-dependent manner accompanied by translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, both fractions stimulate phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In these beneficial effects, low-DP fraction was more effective than high-DP one. On the other hand, high-DP fraction showed greater inhibitory effect of intestinal α-glucosidase activity than low-DP fraction in a cell free-incubation system. In conclusion, cacao liquor procyanidins have anti-hyperglycemic activities and low-DP procyanidins mainly contribute to stimulate glucose uptake by glucose transporter 4 translocation through AMPK-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle while high-DP procyanidins mainly contributes to inhibit the α-glucosidase activity in small intestine.

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