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Article Title

Rheology of fiber-enriched steamed bread: Stress relaxation and texture profile analysis

Abstract

Wheat bran is one of the major dietary fiber sources widely used in the food industry in order to produce fiber-enriched foods. The effects of wheat bran substitution (0-30%), water absorption (46-62%) and electric power (4-12 kW) of steamer on stress relaxation and textural parameters of steamed breads were evaluated by the Texture Analyzer. The results showed that mechanical stress relaxation data of steamed breads were fitted well by both the Peleg-Normand and three-element Maxwell models. At 10-40% strains tested, common and bran-enriched steamed breads were more elastic measured at low strain. It was suitable to perform the stress relaxation test of steamed bread at 10-30% strains. Generally, increasing the substitution of flour by bran resulted in less elasticity and higher hardness of steamed bread. Results of sensory evaluation indicated no significant difference in textural and overall acceptability among various steamed breads with 0, 10 and 20% of wheat bran. Medium and high water absorptions (54-62%) produced fiber-enriched steamed bread with better elasticity and texture. The elasticity of the steamed bread was the lowest at 4 kW electric power of steamer. Significant correlations were found between textural characteristics and stress relaxation parameters. This study suggests that 20% bran-enriched steamed bread, with better elasticity and sensory acceptability, can be produced at 54% of water absorption and 12 kW of electric power of the steamer.

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