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Article Title

UVB photoirradiation of aloe vera - Formation of free radicals, singlet oxygen, superoxide, and induction of lipid peroxidation

Abstract

Aloe vera whole leaf extracts are incorporated into a wide variety of topically applied commercial products. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts contain anthraquinones, which can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UVA light irradiation. In this study, the phototoxicity of two Aloe vera whole leaf extracts, Aloe A and Aloe B, were examined. The Aloe B extract was prepared by treating the Aloe A extract with activated carbon (1%, wt/wt) and filtration to remove the Aloe latex components, including the anthraquinones. UVB irradiation of the Aloe vera whole leaf extracts induced lipid peroxidation in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The amounts of lipid peroxides formed were higher in the Aloe B, which contained lower amounts of anthraquinones than Aloe A. Sodium azide inhibited and deuterium oxide enhanced the formation of lipid peroxides by Aloe B, suggesting that singlet oxygen was involved in the mechanism. When superoxide dismutase was incorporated prior to irradiation, lipid peroxidation was inhibited, indicating that superoxide was produced during the photoirradiation of Aloe B. In addition, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was also used to investigate the generation of free radicals by the UVB photoirradiated Aloe B. ESR measurements indicated that the UVB photoirradiation of Aloe B produced carbon-centered free radicals. These results suggested that, as with the exposure to UVA light, the exposure of Aloe vera whole leaf extracts to UVB light can also generate ROS and induce lipid peroxidation.

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