Current status and detection of genetically modified organism
Production of genetically modified (GM) crops is currently concentrated in just a few countries. In 2001, 99% of GM crops was produced in four countries: US 68%, Argentina 11.8%, Canada 6% and China 3%. Crop-wise, GM soybean made up 63% of global GM planting area and GM corn accounts for 19%, followed by GM cotton (13%) and GM canola (5%). In terms of the global planting area, GM soybean and cotton accounted for 46% and 20%, respectively. Two major genetically modified organisms (GMO) traits in 2001 were herbicide tolerant crops, accounted for 77% of all GM crops, while Bt maize accounted for 11%. Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of GMOs in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein-, and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene sequences is not available, new approaches, such as near-infrared spectrometry, might tackle the problem of detection of non-approved genetically modified (GM) foods. The efficiency of screening, identification and confirmation strategies should be examined with respect to false-positive rates, disappearance of marker genes, increased use of specific regulator sequences and the increasing number of GM foods.
"Current status and detection of genetically modified organism,"
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: Vol. 10
, Article 4.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2739